No, you are completely misunderstanding that article.
Before mail clients stopped loading images by default, it was possible to embed a "web bug" image in an email. Essentially a transparent non-image that is referenced with a unique ID for each user. When the email was viewed, the mail client would request this web bug, and their server could record a) that this particular user opened the email, b) when they opened it, and c) whatever information they could glean from a normal HTTP request - where in the world you are, what software you are using to read the email, what language you have your mail client configured to use, etc.
If at any point you click "Load images", you will be sending this information to whomever sent the email. It's just that by default this would not occur in the majority of mail clients.
Gmail are switching to proxying the images and loading them by default. This means that email senders will get a) and b) by default. You can remedy this by switching your Gmail settings back to the old default of not loading images by default.
However because they are proxying the requests for the images, the people sending emails no longer get access to c) - things like your IP address, location, software, etc.
You seem to have invented some kind of nefarious arrangement between email marketers and Google, but that appears nowhere in the article you link to. It does not describe Google sharing data at all. All the article describes is the fact that by default, email marketers can now get a) and b) by using web bugs - this is something you don't need an agreement with Google to use, it's a natural consequence of the technology in question. It's your browser that shares the data, and it does so by performing a normal HTTP request - this is information you send to each and every website you visit. There's no http://google.com/download-private-data-muhahaha.zip link that email marketers now have access to.
This change improves privacy and has no loss of privacy if you change your settings to not load images by default. If you leave the settings at their defaults, you gain privacy in some ways and lose it in others.