Re To the West, please wake
India is really the neat way to space - you get all your staff doing theoretical work and basic science for decades. When super computer cost, materials science and your own staff are ready you build on what you can do. Never outpace your own staff. No overpriced super computing, never have to over import fancy costly materials or trust expensive outside experts.
China did the same for its domestic nuclear power.
France shows what can be done out of national pride, skill based on post WW2 political reality and the hope of export/sat related sales.
Expensive at the time and great Ada skills. The export pay back is?
The UK and Australia stand out as the national warning from efforts long past. Australia hoped to trade its location for tech help into space. Australian science would be 'on site' to learn/observe all it could and get tech offered for been so 'nice' to the UK and USA. They got to track, film, move the rockets to the launch sites but never really got any space tech for all the help they offered. In the end Australia has its sats build by Asia, the USA. The Australian military has to use a communications system seen and built by "many" other countries...
Very expensive, never secure and all rather comical.
The UK is the throwing cash at emerging space science and running out of cash story.
Buy in big, early, trust the USA and their own science was the costly UK space vision.
The GCHQ wanted to keep up with the US and really wanted satellites soon and at *any* price.
The UK "Skynet" in the 1970's was to provide UK voice encryption for the UK. The other option was for the NSA/GCHQ to work via US Type-777 satellite systems.
Zircon (building on Chevaline/Polaris) was the next epic UK step into space to escape the US "second party" hold on the UK. Never again would the NSA be able to turn the UK data stream off if the UK was seen as naughty.
The Falklands War also made sure the UK finally understood "why" they needed their own space tech. By 1988 the UK was back buying into US satellite systems but after a huge amount spent on Zircon.
The US seemed to want a civilian and military side in one setting. A shuttle to place and collect mil satellite systems on a wonderful civilian boondoggle backend.
Costs could have been hidden as a pure military project or kept low as a pure civilian science effort. The US seemed to mix the budgets with Soviet like budget results over time. Lots of nice jobs, great science, great flow of public funding. Until only the mil side gets needed next gen funding.
Different countries have different ideas. Funding always seems to catch up